|How many forms of ferulic acid exist?|
Ferulic acid usually has three forms: water-soluble, fat-soluble and bound.
Ferulic acid in food exists in three states: water-soluble, fat-soluble and bound.
Water-soluble ferulic acid is present in the cytoplasm of plants, and ferulic acid in this state is easily dissolved in combination with some small molecules (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polyamines, etc.).
The fat-soluble state refers to the combination of ferulic acid with some lipid-containing substances (sterols, etc.), such as oryzanol, which is mainly present in the waxy layer on the surface of plants.
The bound state refers to the binding of ferulic acid to plant cell wall materials (polysaccharides, proteins, and lignin) in the form of esters or ethers.
Both water-soluble and fat-soluble ferulic acid complexes are easily absorbed by the small intestine of the human body and mice, and reach the kidney, liver, lungs, spleen and whole body through the blood, and are quickly metabolized from the urine and do not accumulate in the body. However, the amount discharged from the feces is small. In fact, after being absorbed by the body, free ferulic acid is not in a free state, but exists in the form of glycosides, glucosinolates and methyl esters, and is finally metabolized to compounds such as phenylpropionic acid and cinnamoylglycine.
Most ferulic acid in plants is in the bound state, and humans and animals cannot absorb it directly, but must rely on microbes in the colon to produce esterase to free ferulic acid.
Xi'an Green Spring Technology Co., Ltd.