|How many forms of ferulic acid exist?|
Ferulic acid generally has three forms: water-soluble state, liposolublestate and bound state.
In food field, It is also exists in these three states:water-soluble state, liposolublestate and bound state.
water-solubleferulic acid is exist in the cytoplasm of plants,and ferulic acid in this state is easily dissolved in combination with some small molecules (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polyamines, etc.).
The liposoluble state refers to the combination of ferulic acid and some lipid-containing substances (sterols, etc.), such as oryzanol, which is mainly present in the waxy layer on the surface of plants.
Bound state refers to the form of feruli cacid combine with plant cell wall material (polysaccharide, protein and lignin) in ester or ether.
Both water-soluble and liposolubleferulic acid complexes are easily absorbed by the small intestine of the human body and mice. They reach the kidney, liver, lungs, spleen and whole body through the blood, and are quickly metabolized from the urine and do not accumulate in the body.In fact, after being absorbed by the body, free feruli cacid is not in a free state, but exists in the form of glycosides, glucosinolates and methyl esters. And finally, it metabolized to compounds, such as phenylpropionic acid and cinnamoylglycine.
Most of the ferulic acid in plants exists in a bound state. Humans and animals cannot absorb directly this kind of ferulic acid. So they have to rely on microorganisms in the colon to produce esterase to free ferulic acid.
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